Key publications

Key publications supporting the ATRAG mechanism of action in IPF

  1. Lederer DJ et al. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, The New England Journal of Medicine 2018;378:1811-DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1705751
  2. Fehrenbach H et al. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited. Respiratory Research 2001, 2:33–46
  3. Snijder J et al. Pulmonary fibrosis: a disease of alveolar collapse and collagen deposition, Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 2019; 13:7, 615-619, DOI: 10.1080/17476348.2019.1623028
  4. Todd NW et al. Permanent alveolar collapse is the predominant mechanism in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 2015; 9:4, 411-418, DOI:10.1586/17476348.2015.1067609
  5. Steckelings UM et. The Angiotensin AT2 Receptor: From a Binding Site to a Novel Therapeutic Target. Pharmacol Rev. 2022; 74:4, 1051-1135. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.120.000281
  7. Bruce E et al. Selective activation of angiotensin AT2 receptors attenuates progression of pulmonary hypertension and inhibits cardiopulmonary fibrosis. British Journal of Pharmacology 2015; 172 2219–2231 DOI:10.1111/bph.13044
  8. Rathinasabapathy A et al. The Selective Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist, Compound 21, Attenuates the Progression of Lung Fibrosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in an Experimental Model of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury. Frontiers in Physiology 2018; 9:180. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00180
  9. Tornling G et al. Seven days treatment with the angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist C21 in hospitalized COVID-19 patients; a placebo-controlled randomized multi-centre double-blind phase 2 trial. Lancet EClinicalMedicine 2021; 41:101152. DOI:
  10. Tornling G et al. Effects of oral angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist C21 in Sugen-hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. International Colloquium on Lung and Airway Fibrosis (ICLAF) 2022. Abstract PAM-06. Submitted for publication
  11. Batta R et al. Investigation of the effect of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist C21 on plasma NT-proBNP, a diagnostic biomarker, in subjects hospitalised with COVID-19. ESC Congress 2022.
  12. Maher TM et al. Interim Results from AIR, An Open-label, Single Arm, 36-week Phase 2 Trial of C21 in Subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. ERS International Congress 2022. Late breaking abstract OA1397 and International Colloquium on Lung and Airway Fibrosis (ICLAF) 2022. Abstract PCM-09.